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Table of contents

Sugar Beet A. Coffee Ronald Clarke.

'It's not fair, not right': how America treats its black farmers

Oilseed Crops Edward Weiss. Sorghum and Millets Diseases John F.

Quinoa Kevin S. Sugarcane Glyn James. Wheat Brett F. Cotton Production Khawar Jabran. Tobacco Del Davis. Back cover copy From enhancing the flavour of food to providing a substrate for fermentation, sugar is renowned worldwide for its importance as a commodity. Based on Blackburn's highly successful "Sugarcane," originally published in , this new edition has been fully revised and expanded by an international team of widely respected sugarcane specialists.

Table of contents Foreword. An Introduction to Sugercane. The origins and spread of sugarcane; Movement and development of the noble canes; The ancestry of cultivated sugarcane; The early commercial cane varieties; The botany of sugarcane; Cultivation of sugarcane; The production of sugar; Research; Developments in the twentieth century; References. Plant Improvement of Sugarcane. Introduction; Principles of disease control in sugarcane; Selection of varieties for disease resistance; Fungal diseases; Bacterial diseases; Viral diseases; Phytoplasmal diseases; References.

Pests of sugarcane. Sugarcane Agriculture. Introduction; Systems of cultivation; Yield; Ratoons and ratooning; Land preperation; Seedcane production; Planting; Ratoon management; Weed control in sugarcane; Irrigation and drainage; References. Sugarcane Agronomy. Harvest Management. Pre-harvest burning; Green cane harvesting; To burn or not to burn; Unplanned cane fires; Fire control measures; Fire control equipment; Reaping and transport; Cane storage; Co-ordination and control of harvesting; References.

Cane Payment Systems. Introduction; Different types of cane payments systems; Payment for which sugar products? Project Planning. Introduction; The role of the consultant; Pre-feasibility study; Feasibility study; Further reading. Author Index. Subject Index show more. Rating details. Book ratings by Goodreads. Goodreads is the world's largest site for readers with over 50 million reviews.

We're featuring millions of their reader ratings on our book pages to help you find your new favourite book. Additionally, reductions in investment estimates in the medium and long terms are anticipated because of the development of local equipment manufacturers, which are assumed to deliver more cost-competitive solutions overtime.

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Biomass costs also decrease over time as a consequence of projected developments in the agricultural production system, including the introduction of energy cane. Another driver for reduction in 2G ethanol production costs is the cost of enzyme, which is expected to have lower contribution with the development of more efficient enzymatic cocktails and establishment of local enzyme producers.

As Figs. These results rely on a variety of assumptions. First, the 2G technology is still in the beginning of its technological learning curve whereas 1G is a mature technology which has a lower potential for cost decrease in the industrial stage. Biomass cost reductions are still possible due to new sugarcane varieties and the introduction of energy cane ; therefore, 1G ethanol can experience further cost reduction mostly related to advances in the agricultural production systems.

Second, the high costs associated with 2G technology rely on the current choices of industrial routes and equipment design such as those dedicated to pretreatment area that may evolve over the years. Considering the potential of reduction in capital, and enzyme and biomass costs with the increase of industrial yields, 2G technology has higher potential of cost reduction over time. The comparison of ethanol production costs and the oil price in the international scenario Fig.

Sensitivity analysis was carried out to evaluate the impact of possible variations on biomass, enzymes, and capital costs in both 1G and 2G ethanol production costs. In addition, variation in electricity price, which affects the allocation of production costs, was applied to show its influence on the results. Sensitivity analysis for ethanol production cost. Due to the larger investment of integrated 1G2G scenarios, capital cost has a higher impact on 2G ethanol production cost, especially in the short term, overlapping with 1G ethanol production cost. On the other hand, biomass influences more 1G ethanol, since it is the most important component of its production cost.

As enzyme affects only 2G ethanol production cost, a lower impact in the projection curve is observed. Even so, the comparison shows that the uncertainties in enzyme price could approximate 1G and 2G ethanol production costs in the medium term.

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The impact of electricity price on the ethanol production cost is on allocation. For higher prices, electricity participation in the revenues increases, reducing 1G ethanol production cost. Similarly, 1G2G ethanol production cost also decreases but by a smaller factor due to lower electricity output. However, because of the reduction in the 1G ethanol production cost, 2G ethanol production cost increases. The impact on hydropower availability affects reference prices of other renewable sources in the electricity market—such as solar, wind, and biomass—mainly due to the increasing demand of high cost electricity dispatched to the grid from oil and natural gas-fired power plants.

It is worth highlighting that the exchange rate is also an important variable, which impacts 2G ethanol production costs in the Brazilian currency. Considering that a significant share of imported 2G equipment pretreatment reactor, for instance is estimated in US dollars and that enzymes are reliant on prices set by foreign companies, a high exchange rate volatility may increase uncertainties to the 2G production costs in the Brazilian market, especially in the short term.

However, as much as the 2G ethanol internal market becomes more competitive and mature over time, it is expected that this effect may decrease due to a possible expansion of local 2G equipment and enzyme manufacturers. Environmental impacts for electricity, 1G ethanol, and 2G ethanol were allocated using the same criteria employed in the economic assessment; thus, impacts are proportional to the participation of each product on revenues. At this point, for comparison purposes, impacts related to biofuel distribution and use were not included since there is no expected difference in these life cycle steps for the considered scenarios.

In the 1G-ST, part of the impacts is allocated to electricity production, therefore reducing ethanol impacts. Due to higher ethanol yields i. The expected advances on 2G technology led to a substantial climate change impact mitigation, resulting in values as low as 7. To compare ethanol GHG emissions with those from gasoline, the entire life cycle needs to be considered cradle-to-grave analysis. In this sense, the emissions from ethanol distribution and use 1. The LCA was applied to both ethanol and gasoline under same conditions, methods, and databases, making this comparison reasonable.


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Considering that the production and use of gasoline in Brazil emits This result is in line with other important studies for Brazilian sugarcane ethanol not including land use change emissions or ethanol transportation to other countries [ 35 , 36 ]. These climate change impacts allow ethanol to be classified as an advanced biofuel according to RSF2 regulatory framework [ 31 ]. There is a clear potential for 2G ethanol to achieve a lower production cost compared to 1G ethanol in the medium to long term, even considering several technological and market uncertainties.

However, 2G process is at the beginning of its learning curve and expected improvements will depend on the diffusion and adoption of these new technologies.


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By stimulating investment in the new 2G plants, there would be greater incentive for the development of the entire production chain, such as the establishment of local equipment and enzyme suppliers. For instance, specific funding program for the development and use of energy cane could significantly reduce biomass cost and, integrated to 2G technology, would considerably increase ethanol production per crop area. Therefore, if the suggested mechanisms are successfully implemented, they are likely to play an essential role to rapidly reach larger gains and, then, accelerate the diffusion of a new paradigm in the sugarcane industry, increasing the competitiveness of the sector [ 17 ].

Improvements in the biomass production system were projected considering the increase in agricultural yields, use of biomethane as diesel replacement, and introduction of energy cane beyond other expected improvements. These increments are mainly associated with the advances on 2G technology and the processing of energy cane. In terms of ethanol production costs, although 2G ethanol presents higher cost in the short term, the trend is that 2G ethanol cost will be competitive in the future.

Therefore, public policies specifically designed to motivate the production and consumption of 2G ethanol in Brazil are essential to flatten the learning curve of 2G technology. Environmental assessment results showed that both 1G and 2G ethanol are able to mitigate climate change impacts in comparison to gasoline, but higher benefits are achieved with 2G ethanol production. National energy balance base year. Accessed 20 Jan Sustainable economic development.

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Basel: Springer International Publishing; Explaining the experience curve: cost reductions of Brazilian ethanol from sugarcane. Biomass Bioenerg.

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Ethanol learning curve—the Brazilian experience. IEA Bioenergy. Accessed 9 May Challenges and opportunities in improving the production of bio-ethanol. Prog Energ Combust. Fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass: an overview on feedstocks and technological approaches.