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With time, however, Bandura increasingly abandoned external-force theories of learning and behavior in favor of an internal, self-organizing model which viewed the human being as possessed of genuine agency. He has sought to extend this approach to education with his theory of self-regulated learning, and to clinical psychology with his theory of self-efficacy, or self-control. Bandura is the author or co-author of around peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, as well as the author, co-author, or editor of some dozen books. The recipient of grants, fellowships, and other honors too numerous to mention, in , Bandura was awarded the US National Medal of Science.

A-level Psychology Forensic Psychology Revision for PSYA3 | Simply Psychology

Her professional work has always focused on the emotions, primarily from a biological and cognitive point of view. However, like several other psychologists on this list, Barrett has come to see the value of interdisciplinary efforts to study the mind. The IASL positions itself at the crossroads of the sub-fields of social psychology, psychophysiology, cognitive science, psycholinguistics, and neuroscience, while also drawing inspiration from such humanistic fields as ethnology and philosophy. She has also been deeply involved in developing new methods for studying the emotions, notably the experience sampling method, which is an effort to quantify and measure the quality of everyday life.

The IASL also employs the latest in high-tech brain-imaging techniques.

Gregory (1970) and Top Down Processing Theory

With well over peer-reviewed papers and a half dozen books as sole author or co-editor to her credit, Barrett has received wide recognition in the form of honors and awards too numerous to mention, notably election as Fellow of the American Psychological Association APA in and the American Association for the Advancement of Science AAAS in Beck was born in Providence, Rhode Island, in His parents were Jewish immigrants to the US from Russia. He is undoubtedly best known as the person primarily responsible for the cognitive approach to therapy for depression, which in its modern form of cognitive-behavioral therapy CBT has become the gold standard for the clinical treatment of depression, with a much higher success rate than other types of psychotherapy.

Beck is also widely known as the author of the Beck Depression Inventory BDI , a self-reporting questionnaire designed to measure the severity of depression, which has been revised twice and is still widely used, but which also spawned a whole industry of similar inventories. Beck was also an important contributor to the theory of learned helplessness. The indefatigable author or co-author of over peer-reviewed articles and the author, co-author, or editor of some two dozen technical books, Beck is one of the most highly esteemed and influential psychiatrists of the twentieth century.

Berridge was born in He also received his PhD from Penn, in The master question that his lab raises and attempts to answer is the way in which affective states are generated in the brain, including pleasure, desire and appetite, emotion, and affective valence the subjective scale from positive to negative value according to which most affective states present themselves to us. Berridge is the author or co-author of approximately peer-reviewed research papers and chapters of edited volumes, and is the co-editor with Morten L.

Bloom was born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, in His doctoral dissertation on the subject of language acquisition was supervised by Susan Carey. More specific projects that have grown out of this overriding interest include the exploration of moral judgments in babies, of the role that anger, disgust, and empathy play in the moral lives of adults, of our commonsense understanding of ourselves as possessing free will, of the nature of pleasure especially, the pleasure we derive from fiction , of the psychology of religious belief and atheism, and of our commonsense feeling that our self, or soul, is separate from our body.

Through his popular books, his frequent op-ed pieces and essays in such venues as the New York Times , the Guardian , and the Atlantic , his blogs on Slate , and his interviews with National Public Radio NPR and elsewhere, Bloom has communicated his fascinating and influential ideas to a wide audience far beyond the normal confines of academia.

Buss was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, in Buss works in the area known as evolutionary psychology. Evolutionary psychology traces its roots back to sociobiology, the term proposed by Edward O. Wilson in his landmark study of the same name on the evolution of eusociality —-strongly cooperative societies in which individuals regularly sacrifice themselves for the good of the group. It proved so controversial at the time that the brand name sociobiology became tarnished; the field subsequently morphed into what is now called evolutionary psychology. The basic idea is that stereotypical male and female mating strategies reflect the selection pressures of the human EEA.

In a nutshell, this means that males were better off in Darwinian terms of contributing genes to future populations if they chose mates on the basis of appearance as markers of health and fertility, whereas females were better off in the Darwinian sense if they chose mates on the basis of social status as a marker of their ability to supply resources to the female and her offspring.

Similarly, males are predisposed to promiscuity because of the low physiological cost of their gametes and to intense jealousy to avoid being duped into giving resources to offspring not genetically related to them , whereas females are predisposed to give the appearance of fidelity though not necessarily always the reality. Latterly, Buss has extended his theorizing to the human propensity for murderous violence. Buss is the author or co-author of more than peer-reviewed journal articles, and the author, co-author, or editor of some dozen books. Cosmides was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in At Harvard, she worked closely with famed evolutionary theorist Robert L.

Cosmides, who throughout her career has worked closely and published jointly with her husband, anthropologist John Tooby, is one of the founders of the sub-discipline known as evolutionary psychology see the entry for David M. Buss, above. As Cosmides has put it:. Evolutionary psychology weaves together cognitive science, human evolution, hunter gatherer studies, neuroscience, psychology and evolutionary biology, in an attempt to understand and map the human mind and brain.

Psychology Model Answer: Cognitive Comparison Essay [16 Marks]

Her work has been extraordinarily wide-ranging, analyzing from an evolutionary point of view everything from the psychology of cooperation, coalition and friendship formation, incest avoidance, and autism, to threat interpretation, predator-prey relationships, visual attention, statistical reasoning, and multiple memory systems.

Cosmides has stated that one reason for casting such a wide net is to illustrate how fruitful and productive evolutionary psychology analyses can be. She is the author or co-author of some 90 peer-reviewed journal articles and chapters of edited volumes, as well as the co-editor of an influential early work in the field, The Adapted Mind , among other volumes.

Stanley Hall Lecturer.

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He and his family spent time in an Italian internment camp during the war, but after the war was over he was able to complete his secondary school education in Rome. He emigrated to the US in , at the age of In particular, he is closely associated with the concept of flow. He argues that flow-generating tasks are ones that people experience as rewarding for their own sake, as opposed to merely instrumental to some end.

He further argues that fundamentally happy people are able to tap into their capacity for flow on a regular basis.

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He has described this experience in the following terms:. Being completely involved in an activity for its own sake. The ego falls away. Time flies. Every action, movement, and thought follows inevitably from the previous one, like playing jazz. In addition to personality psychology, his ideas have been influential in the fields of business management and education.

Damon was born in Brockton, Massachusetts, in As a developmental psychologist, Damon has focused his research efforts particularly on the intellectual and social development of children, adolescents, and young adults, but also, to a lesser degree, on psychological development of persons throughout the lifespan. His work has consisted principally of large-scale empirical studies, based on both original field research questionnaires and meta-studies of the developmental psychology literature.


More specifically, Damon has been critical of changes in the conventional wisdom regarding child-rearing in our society over the past couple of generations. As he summarizes the point: Less is expected of the young, and in turn less is received. Damon is the author or co-author of about peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and the author, co-author, or editor of some 18 books in all. The recipient of many awards and honors, Damon has received grants supporting his research from such prestigious organizations as the John D.

Moving beyond the scientific nudge

Davidson was born in New York City in Davidson is famous for espousing Buddhist traditions of mindfulness and meditation as important empirical phenomena worthy of scientific investigation, as well as important techniques for achieving inner peace and spiritual growth. Davidson is a close friend of the 14th Dalai Lama and himself meditates regularly. Davidson has published many peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters.

He is also the author, co-author, or editor of more than a dozen books. Diener was born in Glendale, California, in All other life circumstances education, marital status, financial status, etc. However, Diener found that, all other factors being equal, extraverts still tend to be happier than introverts, leading to the hypothesis that the extraverted personality type is inherently more rewarding, fostering happiness that leads to gregarious behavior, not the other way around. In short, people find happy people attractive.

Aeon for Friends

In other work, Diener has found that subjective well-being has measurable positive effects on health and longevity. On the contrary, Diener has found that many people do not bounce back from devastating life events, and never return to their previous level of subjective well-being. The good news is that since the so-called set-point for subjective well-being appears not to be immutable, therapeutic intervention may potentially be beneficial. Finally, in recent years Diener has begun to explore some of the implications of his findings for politics and public policy, notably in a widely read paper he co-wrote with Martin Seligman see below , Beyond Money: Toward an Economy of Well-Being.

Diener, who has a very high citation h-index score of , has published more than peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters.

He is also the author, co-author, or editor of some dozen books. Ekman was born in Washington, DC, in Following a one-year internship at the Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute, a teaching hospital which is part of the Department of Psychiatry of the University of California, San Francisco, Ekman obtained his PhD in clinical psychology from Adelphi University in He has developed a highly detailed atlas of emotions linked to more than 10, distinguishable facial expressions.

His work has been widely influential, but also controversial. This claim flies in the face of the deeply entrenched relativism within the field of cultural anthropology.

In another example, Ekman has done extensive work on the differences between spontaneous genuine and simulated deceptive emotions which may be detected in facial expressions.