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Assessment of cardiovascular function by combining clinical data with a Sensitivity analysis was performed to select the major model.
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The power of serial measurement as a function of intervention has proven a powerful method of assessing treatment regimens. For standardization, an ECG amplifier was designed with extended frequency response and lead switching to generate any standard lead configuration. For measurements, mice are anesthetized and taped with electrode paste to a PC board which contains ECG lead pads under each limb.

Measurement and Assessment of Cardiac Function | Baylor College of Medicine | Houston, Texas

This general setup and board are used during surgery, Doppler monitoring, and echocardiographic imaging. We have developed technology to allow noninvasive ultrasonic monitoring of blood flow velocity in the heart and peripheral vessels of anesthetized mice [ Hartley et al, ; Hartley et al, ; Kurrelmeyer et al, ]. The system was designed with high spatial 0. The Indus analyzer was developed by Dr.


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The system is configured to detect the peak Doppler shift and to semi-automatically extract features such as peak and average velocities, slopes and accelerations, and areas under portions of the waveform. Mice are anesthetized in a chamber with isoflurane gas and maintained by delivery through a nasal cone and taped to a temperature-controlled laminated plastic board with copper electrodes placed such that the 3 bipolar limb leads allow electrocardiographic monitoring.

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Body fur at the left lower sternal border is clipped and the skin wetted with warm electrode gel to improve sound transmission. Cardiac Doppler signals are normally acquired by placing a 10 MHz probe over the cardiac apex below the sternum and pointing the sound beam toward the LV inflow track to record mitral velocity signals or toward the LV outflow track to record aortic velocity signals.

Measurement and Assessment of Cardiac Function

The pulsed Doppler range gate depth is set at 4 to 7 mm to obtain optimal signals from the LV inflow and outflow tracks substernally. Repeated measures are made from each animal to allow for observation at different heart rates and to ascertain the reproducibility of the measurements. For each study, beats are analyzed. The pulsed Doppler instrument and probes are custom made in our laboratories [ Hartley et al, ]. We found these indices to be altered in systematic ways in many of the disease models studied.

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For instance, in hyperthyroid mice, both systolic and diastolic indices were increased; in senescent mice, systolic indices were normal and diastolic indices were depressed. In myocardial coronary occlusions, permanently occluded mice had more depressed indices than those with reperfusion after occlusion [ Michael et al, ].

Some of the mouse models we study have alterations in peripheral vascular function, arterial compliance, vascular tone, vascular impedance, and regional blood flow. In order to characterize these models we have developed several noninvasive ultrasonic methods to assess blood flow velocity in many peripheral vessels including carotid and coronary [ Hartley et al, ; Hartley et al, ] and the mechanical properties of the aorta and carotid arteries. These include methods to measure pulse wave velocity as an index of vascular stiffness [ Hartley et al, ], the direct measurement of the diameter pulsations of vessel walls [ Hartley et al, ], and the measurement of vascular impedance spectra [ Reddy et al, ], and the measurement of coronary blood flow velocity and coronary flow reserve [ Hartley et al, ; Hartley et al, ].

We have used these methods to characterize atherosclerotic mice [ Hartley et al, ] and the peripheral vascular adaptations to aortic banding [ Li et al, ] and aging [ Reddy et al, ]. Through several recent studies, we have determined that defective angiogenesis is a potential source of intolerance of increased systolic cardiac load. We have developed a method of assessing this by measuring coronary flow reserve in a noninvasive way.

The system is configured to detect the peak Doppler shift and to semi-automatically extract features such as peak and average velocities, slopes and accelerations, and areas under portions of the waveform. Mice are anesthetized in a chamber with isoflurane gas and maintained by delivery through a nasal cone and taped to a temperature-controlled laminated plastic board with copper electrodes placed such that the 3 bipolar limb leads allow electrocardiographic monitoring.

Body fur at the left lower sternal border is clipped and the skin wetted with warm electrode gel to improve sound transmission. Cardiac Doppler signals are normally acquired by placing a 10 MHz probe over the cardiac apex below the sternum and pointing the sound beam toward the LV inflow track to record mitral velocity signals or toward the LV outflow track to record aortic velocity signals. The pulsed Doppler range gate depth is set at 4 to 7 mm to obtain optimal signals from the LV inflow and outflow tracks substernally.

Repeated measures are made from each animal to allow for observation at different heart rates and to ascertain the reproducibility of the measurements. For each study, beats are analyzed. The pulsed Doppler instrument and probes are custom made in our laboratories [ Hartley et al, ]. We found these indices to be altered in systematic ways in many of the disease models studied.

For instance, in hyperthyroid mice, both systolic and diastolic indices were increased; in senescent mice, systolic indices were normal and diastolic indices were depressed.

clublavoute.ca/calim-vielha-e.php In myocardial coronary occlusions, permanently occluded mice had more depressed indices than those with reperfusion after occlusion [ Michael et al, ]. Some of the mouse models we study have alterations in peripheral vascular function, arterial compliance, vascular tone, vascular impedance, and regional blood flow.

In order to characterize these models we have developed several noninvasive ultrasonic methods to assess blood flow velocity in many peripheral vessels including carotid and coronary [ Hartley et al, ; Hartley et al, ] and the mechanical properties of the aorta and carotid arteries. These include methods to measure pulse wave velocity as an index of vascular stiffness [ Hartley et al, ], the direct measurement of the diameter pulsations of vessel walls [ Hartley et al, ], and the measurement of vascular impedance spectra [ Reddy et al, ], and the measurement of coronary blood flow velocity and coronary flow reserve [ Hartley et al, ; Hartley et al, ].

We have used these methods to characterize atherosclerotic mice [ Hartley et al, ] and the peripheral vascular adaptations to aortic banding [ Li et al, ] and aging [ Reddy et al, ]. Through several recent studies, we have determined that defective angiogenesis is a potential source of intolerance of increased systolic cardiac load.

Introduction

We have developed a method of assessing this by measuring coronary flow reserve in a noninvasive way. Coronary flow is measured with a MHz Doppler ultrasound probe. This probe has been designed so that we can easily assess coronary flow velocity in the main coronary artery of the mice. To induce maximum cardiac dilatation, the mouse is briefly exposed to high concentrations of isofluorane gas anesthesia 2.

The technique has already been used in several ongoing studies and is now a routine option for mice undergoing models of cardiac overload [ Hartley et al, ]. We use a VisualSonics Vevo with a high frequency transducer to perform 2-D-directed M-mode echocardiography in mice. This instrument was purchased under a Shared Instrumentation Grant specifically for the mouse laboratory and is available full-time for research applications.

The laboratory routinely uses this system to assess cardiac structure and function [ Dewald et al, ; Kurrelmeyer et al, ; Medrano et al, ; Cieslik et al, ; Haudek et al, ].